The Private Action and the Multisensory Body Experience in the Nomadic Radio Project by Rodrigo Pagliera: Part 2
Rute Rosas, Porto, August 2019
For the brief, I take the term Private Action and the text I wrote between 2018 and 2019: Private Action and Multisensory Body Experience: Motivations and announcement of the designation and meaning of Fine Arts.
In the light of the concept of Private Action and Rodrigo Paglieri’s Nomadic RadioProject, which I got to know and started following when the artist visited the city of Porto, and motivated by the conversations I had with him about his artistic background and research as well as the artistic and academic interest this project presented, I decided to create and schedule two initiatives at Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Porto (FBAUP) with the Research Institute in Art, Design and Society (I2ADS): Presentation of the Project after the beginning of the radio-map walk, in the I2ADS/FBAUP Book Store, which allowed to watch the project live through the webpage created by the artist – www.radionomade.art – and a Masterclass – 5 readings about the Nomadic Radio Project: a journey, a walk-in radio-map with Rodrigo Paglieri – that happened on May 28th of 2019, at the Master Class of FBAUP.
I chose this particular project to write this essay because the relations it establishes are directly related with the concept of Private Action, but also with the Multisensory Body, and the possibility that I had to follow part of the process, its online course since the departure of La Infinita in Barcelona on April 15th, and after Rodrigo Paglieri's return to Rio de Janeiro in June.
Thus, and for the reasons given, I synthetically state the definition of Private Action, which has, in its sense, two public motivations, that means there are innumerable and immeasurable motivations that belong to the domain of the Private and/or the Intimate - the Authentic, the Existential Experience, the Impulse of Creating Imagination and Self-Censorship with a poetic agent.
The artistic practice referring to the Private Action is inside the definition of Happening, in Fine Arts. It is well known, the concept of Happening is different from Performance, since it's unrepeatable, among other variants.
In this sense, I found one first and clear relation with this thought in the Nomadic Radio Project and Rodrigo Paglieri, Chilean artist, professor and researcher (Santiago, Chile, 1969), who lives and works in Brazil since 1988.
In Rodrigo Paglieri’s words for the presentation of the Project Nomadic Radio in its webpage, host of the radio web, we can read that this radio project “consists of a 45-day walk through the interior of the Iberian Peninsula, between Barcelona and Porto, and the creation of a digital radio station over the graphical interface of a map, with the trace based on the Google maps platform. It is an Art Project of sound mapping, having the walk as a cartographic process and the radio as a collective instrument for map drawing. (…) Nomadic Radio (is) a digital radio station in the graphic interface of Google Maps, that (shows) in real-time the location and the movement on the map, through a GPS track. Simultaneously, the radio sound is captured in loco and transmitted live. The graphic interface (connects) the transmitted sound to the corresponding location on the map. The site also (has) a tool, represented by an antenna symbol, to identify the radio that is being transmitted as well as online short descriptions written in real-time about the place and its community. The Nomadic Radio program (is) random, which results on the retransmission of all the radio stations the Project goes through. It's a sound collage randomly composed by the encounter of FM broadcasting antennas, enriched by the sound and speeches diversity[,] (…) as a soundtrack, in direct connection with the road to travel". In this Project, we also have access to an animated GIF representing Rodrigo Paglieri that, beyond indicating us his location it leaves a trace of the travelled path.
The Nomadic Radio was an unique event, an action in a specific period in time and space that, if on the one hand may lead us to the idea of Site-Specific, on the other, it distances itself much or more from the place, becoming the body and the movement motivated by space and time - Body and Surrounding. Either way, within this context where we're at, there's the unrepeatable, but also the residue, the documentation, the examination of what matters to be registered and socialized.
In Private Action, the explicit presence of the performer(s) is not a mandatory or necessary condition, as it does in the case of the Nomadic Radio Project, and they are subtracted from everything that does not matter to the public and/or that cannot be shown and is maintained within the Private and/or Intimate, as I mentioned. It is thus a variant of Happening or Action as Joseph Beuys preferred (1921 - 1986).
I will give a few examples of works and artists of the 20th and 21st centuries as bridges and relations to the Nomadic Radio Project along this text, considering these works enlighten, in some way, what I understand as Private Actionof Multisensory experience of the artist’s body as well as, in some cases, of the Other, the others, the active or passive users in the perception and reception of Fine Arts Works.
In this sense, and before we focus on Rodrigo Paglieri, I begin with a paradigmatic example and one of the artists who, through his career and works, drove the decision to write and develop this concept: Joseph Beuys. The German artist was one of the greatest educators for the use of senses, one of the most influential artists of the 1970s and a reference in the 20th Century art – putting into practice the philosophical and educational ideas of Rudolf Steiner (1861 – 1925), founder of Anthroposophy or the knowledge through supersensible experience –Architecture had to be sculptural, because Sculpture, according to him, is the most complete plastic language. Developing the concept of Eurhythmics: anyone who moves or expresses themselves has to do it harmoniously (rhythmically), as a moving sculpture. “We can state that considering anguish as the most adequate concept for the system we live in”, Beuys favoured the decision that all of us only work through self-determination based on freedom and creativity – a human trait that should be explored. In Beuys' words during an interview with Franz Hak in 1979, creativity is not a monopoly of the arts. “When I say everybody is an artist, I mean everybody can determine the content of life in his particular sphere, whether in painting, music, engineering, caring for the sick, the economy or whatever. Our cultural idea is often very reductive”.
The 1974 action, I Like America and America Likes Me, for example, began long before its public presentation at the René Block Gallery. Beuys flew to the JFK airport, in New York, was wrapped in felt by his friends and transported by an ambulance to the gallery.
In 8-hour shifts each day for three days, Beuys occupied a small space in the Gallery, from which we have access to visual records and documents, with a felt cloak that completely covered him and extended beyond his feet, a pair of gloves, a cane, copies of The Wall Street Journal delivered daily and a live coyote. The coyote wobbled between attacking the felt and urinating on the newspapers, but eventually he became friendly enough to allow Beuys to hug him, who, at the end of this three days, was wrapped in felt again and returned to the airport. Throughout this project, Beuys didn’t touch American ground, as he intended and anticipated in the conceptual framework of his project for this action with clearly political and profoundly poetic outlines and affirmation.
Rodrigo Paglieri’s Nomadic Radio is also characterized by the whole and multisensory body's persistence, presence and involvement in a Private Action. Since it isn't an autobiographical project, as with Beuys, it is certainly self-referential because of the unpredictability of the experiential experience: what I understand as true as self-referential truth. Nomadic Radio needs the artist as a whole, as a body – experimental machine for his own work and as a medium and interface, the decision-maker in all stages and all actions.
Before the action, the sensory body experience doesn’t exist yet. Paglieri didn’t experiment or experience that before and he could only guess what it would be like through his research and previous artistic projects such as the 2016 Mudapé Project. Thus, the process can be considered the primordial phase of these projects. Its goal is cerebral, rational and rigorous in its search for precision but, during the action, a lot has changed and the artist adapted himself to the different variables. These variables acquire, simultaneously, more magic and more poetry, enriching the artist and preparing him for what will come after completing the journey: look into what is stated in both the webpage and the logbook that supported the process of the actions happening from April 15th to May 22nd of 2019.
I followed the artist’s departure from Barcelona through the internet and I’ve realized immediately on Google Maps that the path would become more and more arid and lonely. However, the richness of the radio sounds announced what I had understood about this idea of Sound Landscape. The radio stations were almost rampantly overlapping, fumbling, intersecting, and in many moments, from the first day, I heard snippets of news, debate, publicity, diverse music, always in Catalan.
Over the next days, it was notorious the difficulty degree to carry the journey, because of the exodus and consequent populational ageing and demographics in many rural regions of the interior, desertification, loss of mobile service and a long time spent in arid and almost desert places.
Nomadic Radio reveals to be an often lonely survival experience. In this process, the body is often lonely, by himself, or with what he listens to over the radio, which is, I suppose, exhausting, tiring and painful for the body and the concentration along the way. The ears constantly hear random sound mixtures as well as noise and, most times, overlaps. Some sounds come, others that go and disappear either suddenly or gradually when the stations' waves shuffle, get lost or are surpassed by the walking of the nomad body and the walking artist, Rodrigo Paglieri.
The backpack and all the “apparatus”, as Rodrigo puts it, with the strictly necessary, “a backpack equipped with an analog radio, phone and an back-up antenna, typical for the FM band”, some clothes and the hygiene basics, sleeping bag, food, water and other maintenance equipment – batteries, chargers, etc., crosses the body and is essential for the action. A sort of survival kit as well as an extension or even a prosthesis that leaves marks on the body. We can presume that, for Paglieri, this “apparatus” becomes heavier each day at the end of the always unexpected and/or unusual daily routes. Fatigue becomes both a brake and a motivation until the destiny. Porto, a port and a connection point to the Atlantic Ocean that will take him back to the place he left months before.
Beuys’ attractive and unique path demonstrated the reach of the Work/Life, Art/Life relationship. He creates the concept of Soziale Plastik or Social Sculpture, which favours everyone's decision that only works with a self-determination that has freedom and creativity as starting points, since they are a human trait that should be explored, assuming that creativity is a common ability for all of us. In his open lectures at the end of the 1970s, this concept was used to describe a broader principle that encompasses the artist's understanding of art's potential to transform society. The artist is considered a subject that actively creates and molds society’s structures, involved in a social transformation process, using actions, objects and aesthetic situations. In this sense, the spectators/users or, in many cases, active participants are equally responsible for what society is and represents. This way, Beuys promoted group discussions with individuals from a specific community. These individuals were also materials that could be shaped, enhancing the construction of works of art.
In Nomadic Radio there’s an underlying conceptual structure to the project that has similarities with Soziale Plastik. Rodrigo Paglieri points out that his “intention is for the public to complete the territories of the radio-map landscape with their cultural baggage and inventiveness. The action of the radio-map landscape also involves another public other than the one that accesses the work because of its expositive apparatus. We are referring to an Other of the way, which is a spontaneous audience that often participates in the realization of the work by indicating a path and exchanging experiences. The Other of the way connects in a different way to the work, often without realizing that it is a work of art”.
Either way, Paglieri understands his action as "veiled". "We decided that the day-to-day of the body, that moves and works on the landscape construction, is hidden in the expositive apparatus of the work for ethical and aesthetical reasons. The artist-director walks, syncs, transmits and connects with the Other and with the geography of the route. He acts, moves, directs and performs, to have an output the public doesn't see. What we intend is for the public to sense that output by what he's able to see, hear, namely the location, the route, the local radios, the sound effects of the geography, all through the propagation of sound waves. In other words, what we want is for him to perceive the relational landscape through what we give him to see and listen in the geographical, ethnographical, sound and map landscapes. Our goal is for the public to complete the radio-map landscape's territories with their cultural baggage and inventiveness".
In my point of view, and as exposed by Rodrigo Paglieri, even when he highlights that his project shouldn’t be misunderstood as a Performance or as a Happening, Nomadic Radio fits within the Private Action exactly because of the similarities to the motivations of artists who act with the assumptions developed in this concept.
On the one hand, I refer to the decision to not present everything: the whole process and every action happening behind the scenes. Obviously, I'm talking about Private Actions or this kind of artistic events.
On the other hand, there’s the fact that it may not make sense to show or present everything because it’s not interesting to anyone but the self. This disinterest, in the sense that Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) attributed, is an antithesis of the self-interest but comes from a certain voyeurism, or sickly and sometimes somewhat promiscuous curiosity (Reality Shows and some uses of Social Media are examples of this). In our context, countless data doesn't interest the audience, so the artist decides to not show them, since they are redundant, excessive and overall disturbing to the core of the artist's intention and work: the excess of information would reduce the quality of the artistic work. Therefore, with the inherited responsibility implied in the decision to expose, show, socialize, this capability that the artist has to conduct a filter to what he wishes to share with others, this awareness about what he wishes to become communicative by itself is, in my understanding, a demonstration of courage, creativity and humility of the artist, that reveals the degree of excellence of the artist himself allied to the respect for his audience, for the Others and for the Culture.
“I cannot, in fact, understand the problem of an artist's so-called ‘freedom' or ‘lack of freedom'. An artist is never free. No group of people lacks freedom more”. It is certain that “he is at liberty to choose between realizing his talent as fully as he can or selling his soul for thirty pieces of silver. (…) I am also convinced that no artist would work to fulfil his personal spiritual mission if he knew that no one was ever going to see his work. Yet at the same time, when he is working he must put a screen between himself and other people, in order to be shielded from empty, trivial topicality. For only total honesty and sincerity, compounded by the knowledge of his own responsibility towards others, can ensure the fulfilment of an artist's creative destiny”. In agreement with the words of the Russian filmmaker, Andrei Tarkovski (1932-1986), and this should be common to all of us, what happens is clearly an interpretation of the reality or realities. It is up to the artist to express himself, creating art pieces with the responsibility to socialize – the confrontation and respect for what is between what I’m seeing and feeling and what exists in the Others. Thus, what I classify as Self-censorship as a Poetic Agent refers directly to a distinction between what is Public and what belongs to the private and to the intimate which often goes beyond the awareness of the unconscious.
I recall the Brazilian artists across the Atlantic Lygia Clark (1920 – 1988) and Hélio Oiticica (1937 – 1980) and the exploration of the limits for active experiences of the body’s sensory exploration. Attempting to connect these artists with the Nomadic Radio Project in the context of Private Action, we can mention, for example, the idea of the proposer artist and the delivery of the work to others as a possibility to activate and promote experiences and the growth of existing sensory energy hidden inside each one of us and repressed by society. The idea of the proposer artist is one of Rodrigo Paglieri’s approaches in this project as well as others developed previously, such as Obra Limpa 1, 2004; Panorâmica Brasília, 2011 and the one mentioned above, Projeto Mudapé.
However, Clark’s bold yet dangerous line between the artist/doctor, spectator/patient in her last works cannot be confused with Rodrigo Paglieri’s projects. For example, Objectos Relacionais and Baba Antropofágica have “the power to make us differ from ourselves” and act as an undefinition between art and psychanalysis faced by the artist as “a frontier work: (…) it’s not psychanalysis, it’s not art. Therefore, I stay at the border, completely alone”. In a letter she wrote to Guy Brett, we can read: “Ideally my works should be thrown in mass to the man on the street, which is something impossible for me here in Brazil”.
In the Nomadic Radio Project, we have the proposer artist who, on the one hand, instigates the curiosity of others, acts in the so-called public space and, on the other, subtly and poetically invites others: a recurring positioning on her career and artistic work that, particularly in this project, drives the action of making the way. In Paglieri’s words “the expositive moment of a radio-map landscape is during its execution. It’s a procedural work, not only caused by a conceptual or political choice, but also by the nature of the work itself. A radio-map landscape is a landscape that resulted from a walking journey, the radio-map landscape exists accordingly to the body moving in the landscape”.
Another connection between this works is based on a few examples of the initial path of Richard Long (1945 -). His official webpage starts with a brief note where we can read:
- “In the nature of things:
- Art about mobility, lightness and freedom.
- Simple creative acts of walking and marking about place, locality, time, distance and measurement.
- Works using raw materials and my human scale in the reality of landscapes.
- The music of stones, paths of shared footmarks, sleeping by the river's roar.”.
This was the primary conceptual sculpture of the first and many works of this walking sculptor – I’m referring to the 1960s and 1970s – highlighting a few examples, such as 1967’s A line made by walking, 1972’s Walking Line in Peru or 1979’s A line in Japan, Mount Fuji, that enhance the path, the walk, the mark left in a distant place, the time while the Private Action of the body in the landscape lasts.
In Nomadic Radio, similarly to the examples mentioned above, big part of the work depended on the set period, but there were no certainties for its conclusion, during the journey, as I've already mentioned – something could've happened that would prevent the edition from closing, for example. Rodrigo Paglieri did not know neither could he know who he would find, if he would find someone, how would people react along the way and even which way would he take. You make the path by walking as its own unique ritual, appearing as a relational proposal to others.
It is equally noticeable that there’s a unique and multisensory experience of the artist’s body, both in Long’s and Paglieri’s work. Even with a prior program and structure, a definition of the beginning and end of the route, its design is built along the way accordingly to the distinct factors that only the body of the artist experiences as a Homonomadic.
This way, it is only after a sort of digestion of the experience of what the Nomadic Radio Project was and still is, that Rodrigo Paglieri can write, describe or talk about it. During the experience time goes by fast and slow, simultaneously; the survival and the desire to reach the destiny prevail; the unknown and the surprising are present in every minute; the concern with the radio, with the transmission of the different soundscapes while walking, often without taking a break, but also, sometimes, the loss of network or internet, provoke emotional shifts and change the focus. The demographical, geographical and weather changes also participate in those shifts and his actions, reactions and behaviours. All this is veiled, between the private and intimate of Rodrigo Paglieri in his Nomadic Radio Project.
The body in the landscape is invisible, but its presence is felt and is a game of concealment. The presence of the body is evident by its icon, an animated GIF with a pulse, moving accordingly to the real movement of the body, as I mentioned previously. The experience consists in a real-time landscape experience where the action of the landscape is an action without a visible body, only noticeable by the pulse and the movement of an icon on the webpage created for the project, “by the movement of the character and by the action of capturing and transmitting the audio. However, there is a real performing body in the landscape to capture, to transmit, to walk, to go forward and to survive the way, but its performance is intimate and private. The Homonomadic body is a bionic body that gets emotional, tired and interested and a body-machine responsible for the mechanical procedures that build the radio-map landscape”, in the artist’s words.
Furthermore, this project could be an intentional mistake, a technological lie. Nomadic Radio could be completely virtual, but staged and presented as real. We can imagine, for example, the use of one or more drones remotely commanded by Rodrigo Paglieri, who would be comfortable driving and monitoring all the technological mechanisms and equipment. Except that wasn’t the project neither the artist intended for it to be like that. The body acts, it is there, it is present. It opens connections, in Deleuze and Guattari’s thinking, it perceives and feels what we will not be able to perceive and feel, at least not in the same way. Since we are different individuals, and because we only receive what Rodrigo defines as an integral part of the project – even if it's subject to our own interpretation – just like any work of art and its connotative character. The rest belongs to him, also because of the inability to transmit everything (a fact in all artistic works and life itself).
The Poesis, the Imagination that works together with the Techne, with the limits of language and, in this case, with the confrontations and ironic games that Paglieri makes with the technology itself, demonstrates concerns and limitations of this area of the scientific and technoscientific knowledge. Just by the fact that Paglieri has decided to use an analogue radio has constraints and limits, but it also broadens the possibilities of this decision made before the experience that enriches the whole project with cunning and boldness.
Verbal and written language takes us directly to the idea that, in Fine Arts, speaking and writing can become a medium to reach an idea: to describe, explain techniques, operative procedures and frameworks, which doesn’t mean it stops having a connotative character because the reality of Art exists because of its very own existence.
L. Wittgenstein highlighted the necessity to conceal, forcing us to reflect on the limits of language – between what can be said and what cannot.
“Even if someone were able to express everything that is 'within him', we wouldn't necessarily understand him”.
In any case, if the work of art is a human product, which it is, the artist cannot do without materialization, the expression of his ideas. If he doesn't materialize them, he doesn't export them from "within him"; if he doesn't socialise them they remain as individual, intimate and private thoughts. The thought – whether it is an idea or not – is free, but it isn’t considered Art, which means that without a materialized manifestation, socialised expression, there is no work of art.
"Acting through all the engines that allow our existence and evolution, Art and, particularly, Fine Arts are primarily linked with this idea of implication and trade, an interactive activity of the receptor with the art pieces. This interactivity presupposes the body and its concepts under two perspectives: the body as a support and the body as a proposer of a multisensory experience". The second perspective mentioned can refer to the Nomadic Radio Project, for example, and to those works that only make sense when there is a physical and mental experience of the active user, who incorporates them, from which are examples the resulting Installations/Environment and Site-specific, regardless of the performative actions, public art and/or in private spaces that may occur simultaneously. The body of the artist can be the support used for a demonstration of an action to be experienced by the spectator. This means that, in this case, the artist uses his body as a proposer of an experience, as already mentioned. The artist considers the hypothesis that the user makes use of his own body, independently of the physical presence of the artist's body, presenting and/or proposing a multisensory experience.
These approaches to the theme about the body directly imply notions such as space/scale, time, means, essential for idea materialization.
In contrast, it seems imperative to trace a scheme that clarifies about those that, in their creative strategy, announced new paradigms for art and its users, through a new framework of practical intervention with notions such as the perception of scale, time or means.
Richard Long’s experiences and the resulting works attribute to the “place the statute of body, while body art gave the body the statute of place. These cross polarities between body and space reinforce their illusory nature. The body is a place in the sense that the place is a body”.
After an analysis of the body we have, desire or that may have in the future, there is a time to work the space and the time, without separating the body, because “to be a body, is to be tied to a certain world, as we have seen; our body is not primarily in space: it is of it”. This question of the body in space in which space is also a body is evident in Twentysix Gasoline Stations by Edward Ruscha (1939 -). Briefly, this work is an artist-book publication composed of black and white photographs with captions referring to the service stations located along the road between his house in Los Angeles and his parents' house in Oklahoma. These are factual records, photo documents, without a linear sequence other than the informative captions with the name and location of the stations.
This example easily links us to Fragmentos de um Diário de Viagemde 15 de abril a 22 de maio de 2019 (Travel Journal Fragments from April 15th to May 22nd of 2019) as part of the Nomadic Radio Project. The use of image and sound, video and/or photography are sometimes expression tools or media of the Private Action. For example, in Portugal, a collective of architects, Os Espacialistas, has publications in newspaper format, inspired by the Diário da República, called Diário dos Espacialistas, as well as the esquiços fotográficos that integrate the book O Atlas do Corpo e da Imaginação (The Body and Imagination Atlas) by the Portuguese poet, novelist, playwright and essayist Gonçalo M. Tavares.
It is a sort of photographic illustrations created in Private Action that cover the entire publication written in hypertext with different possibilities and reading levels, according to the author of the book.
In Gonçalo M. Tavares words, looking to briefly define who are Os Espacialistas and what they “do, in an extraordinary way, is build a narrative in a small image that has a before and an after that isn’t seen”, it isn’t public, “but whoever looks to the image can reconstruct it”. These are “quotes in image terms”, a sort of “playful sobriety sabotage”.
Nomadic Radio is also characterized by the persistence, the multisensory involvement of the whole body which, according to Paglieri’s expectations, it can serve as a “poetic contagion of the radio-map landscape influencing other walking, performing or landscape artists to make different radio-map landscape projects as it was the Nomadic Radio Project. All of them will be different, the radio-map landscape experience is unique. The geographical, ethnographical, relational and sound landscapes will be different. The resulting radiophonic audio collages and the geographical effects over the recorded sound are unrepeatable and unpredictable”.
The pleasure for walking, running, daydreaming may have unconsciously promoted the start of all the process for the project. However, it is the experience and the technological and electronic seduction, the transmitted and retransmitted knowledge, the recreation of reborn landscapes that already existed or the possibility for other points of view, for other sounds, for social actions or even expressly political actions – transferring the extreme to himself – that are in the essence of Rodrigo Paglieri’s rationalized restlessness that was so clearly expressed in the Nomadic Radio Project.
In order to finish this essay and this historical, sociological and conceptual, but equally poetical approach, full of artistry, I’ll leave you, for a moment, with Beuys’ words:
“when something is difficult, it cannot be abandoned solely because it is too difficult. (…) It is precisely what should stimulate us. If it were easy, I could be now resting”.
- Porto, August 1st, 2019
- Rute Rosas
- PhD Teacher – University of Porto, Portugal
- Assistant Professor – Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Porto, Portugal (FBAUP)
- Fine Arts Department - Sculpture https://sigarra.up.pt/fbaup/pt/FUNC_GERAL.FORMVIEW?p_codigo=243788
- Member of I2ADS https://i2ads.up.pt/
- Fine Artist
 ROSAS, Rute, 2019. Retrieved from http://www.ruterosas.com/pt/textos/
 Rodrigo Paglieri didn’t know Porto. I accompanied his first visit in January 2019, showing him the city and answering his political, cultural and social questions about Portugal and, more specifically, about the Northern regions of Portugal.
 https://www.fba.up.pt/2019/05/20/radionomada-uma-viagem-uma-caminhada-em-radio-mapa/. The 5 readings/interventions and contributions were conducted by Martí Peran of the University of Barcelona and Miguel Carvalhais, Pedro Tudela, Sofia Ponte, Rute Rosas of FBAUP/UP, with the presence of Rodrigo Paglieri.
 http://www.lainfinitalh.org/radionomada/ Free translation.
 ROSAS, Rute, 2011. Subjects addressed in A Autocensura como Agente Poético Processual da Criação Escultórica - Projectos, Processos e Práticas Artísticas. Acessível em Biblioteca da Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade do Porto. Free translation. Retrieved from https://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/handle/10216/83244
 Paglieri, Rodrigo, in http://radionomade.art/about.html
 ROSAS, Rute, 2002. One of the subjects addressed in A Percepção Somatossensorial da Obra de Arte: Pressupostos de um projecto artístico, Master Thesis, Faculty of Fine Arts of University of Porto, Portugal, Editora Universidade do Porto. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/
 “Angustia es el concepto más adecuado para al sistema. (...) seria idiota no estar angustiado. Quiero decir, de momento, la angustia se le pasaría gracias a la estupidez”. BEUYS, Joseph, in Joseph Beuys – Cada Hombre, un artista- conversaciones en Documenta 5 - 1972, pp. 102,103. Free translation.
 HAKS, F., 1995. Interview with Joseph Beuys. In Joseph Beuys: Diverging Critiques. Liverpool: Tate Gallery Liverpool and Liverpool University Press.
 Retrieved from https://rodrigopaglieri.wixsite.com/projetomudape/ Free translation.
 PAGLIERI, Rodrigo in Masterclass 5 leituras sobre o Projeto Radionómada: uma viagem, uma caminhada em rádio-mapa com Rodrigo Paglieri, May 28th, 2019. FBAUP, Porto
 TARKOVSKI, Andrei, in Tarkovski – Sculpting in Time (tit.orig. DIE VERSIEGELTE ZEIT, translation Kitty Hunter-Blair), University of Texas Press, 1998, p. 165.
 Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?reload=9&v=_FtUhE_f50k
 Retrieved from https://rodrigopaglieri.wixsite.com/projetomudape/ Free translation.
 CLARK, Lygia, do texto de Suely Rolnik, O híbrido de Lygia Clark, in Lygia Clark, org. e prod.: Fundação Antoni Tàpies, 1997-98. Free translation.
 CLARK, Lygia, in BRETT, Guy, Lygia Clark: Seis Células, Op. cit., p. 19. Free translation.
 PAGLIERI, Rodrigo, op.cit. 28 de maio, 2019. FBAUP, Porto. Free translation.
 CLARK, Lygia, Caminhando, Livro-Obra, Rio de Janeiro, 1983, in op. cit., p. 151.
 PAGLIERI, Rodrigo, op. cit. 28 de maio, 2019. FBAUP, Porto. Free translation.
 ROSAS, RUTE, 2011. The written language - denotative – does not allow to understand the process of creation because it is connotative. One of the subjects addressed in A Autocensura como Agente Poético Processual da Criação Escultórica. Op.cit
 It will be relevant, even if we understand that, in this logical/ethical division, the idea of seeking the essence of meaning in the domain of logic - denotative - is different in an ethical/aesthetic relationship. It’s impossible to use objective criteria in Fine Arts because they belong to the ethics and aesthetics scope and therefore are transcendental or connotative.
 WITTGENSTEIN, Ludwig, in Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology: The inner and the outer, 1949-1951. University of Chicago Press, 1992.
 ROSAS, Rute, 2019. One of the subjects addressed and developed in Ação Privada e Experiência do Corpo Multissensorial: Motivações e anúncio da designação e significação nas Artes Plásticas.
 SILVA, Paulo Cunha e, O Lugar do Corpo- Elementos para uma cartografia fractal. Col.: Epistemologia e Sociedade, dir.: António Oliveira Cruz, Instituto Piaget, 1999, p.32. Free translation.
 MERLEAU-PONTY, Maurice, Phenomenology of Perception. Psychology Press, 2002.
 According to Luis Baptista, mentor and promoter of Os Espacialistas: “Os Espacialistas are 1,2,3,4,5,6,7, ∞ and the 8 falls” and in the words of Delfim Sardo this collective is located “in a hybrid territory between contemporary art and architecture, Os Espacialistas - whose name was taken from the Italian group of artists related to Lúcio Fontana who defined themselves in the late 1940s – they focus their projects on the understanding of the spatial relations, in the transfiguration and metamorphosis of the bodily and symbolically inhabited space. (…) Photography is of great importance in their work due to all the documentary possibilities and also because it can manipulate and deceive, an essential part of the irony of Os Espacialistas.” Free translation. In https://www.facebook.com/pg/espacialistas/about/?ref=page_internal
Os Espacialistas began in 2008 and it is a laboratory project for theoretical and practical research about the links between Art and. They replace the pencil with the camera as a device for drawing, thinking, perceiving and diagnosing natural manufactured space, whose actions are regulated by the Diário do Espacilista and supported by the Kit Espacialista Por/tátil that they carry with them. Retrieved from https://www.bol.pt:4432/Comprar/Bilhetes/73771-goncalo_m_tavares_os_espacialistas_os_animais_e_o_dinheiro-teatro_municipal_rivoli/ on March 28th of 2019. Free translation. We suggest the reader visits https://www.fba.up.pt/2019/03/20/transobjestos-os-espacialistas/.
 Expression of Os Espacialistas. Free translation. Watch Book Trailer Atlas do Corpo e da Imaginação dos Os Espacialistas in https://vimeo.com/78555099, accessed on June 20th of 2019.
 In 2013, Gonçalo M. Tavares's doctoral dissertation, oriented by Paulo Cunha e Silva, was published in book format. Born in Luanda in 1970, the Portuguese writer has won several world-class literary awards and he has translated and distributed works in over 40 countries. Among many of his works, we can highlight the novel, Jerusalém, winner of the 2005’s Prémio Saramago. This book was included in the edition "1001 livros para ler antes de morrer – um guia cronológico dos mais importantes romances de todos os tempos". Free translation.
 TAVARES, M. Gonçalo in RTP play – RTP2 Atelier d’Arquitetura – Os Espaciliastas – episode 4, April 28th of 2019. Retrieved from https://www.rtp.pt/play/p5644/e403767/atelier-arquitetura on July 5th of 2019. Free translation.
 PAGLIERI, Rodrigo, op. cit. May 28th, 2019. FBAUP, Porto. Free translation.
 BODENMANN-RITTER, Clara, Joseph Beuys – Cada Hombre, un artista- conversaciones en Documenta 5 - 1972, p. 114. Free translation.